Events in the 17th century

In the beginning of the century, the population of Sweden is about 90000, at the end about 1500000,
the population of Stockholm is around 10000 and at the end about 45000.

Stockholm in 1570.

King Sigismund Vasa of Poland laid claim to the swedish throne.
(Sigismund inherited the Swedish throne because he was the son of the king. Problem was, he was a Catholic and already king of Poland. Eventually his uncle, Karl, siezed power in 1599)
Sigismund I of Sweden
(Sigismund III of Poland)
Karl IX

1600 Second war with Poland starts.
The ruins of Pompeii discovered.

1602 Dutch East India Company founded.

1603 First Gothenburg founded.
Johann Bayer publishes the first complete celestial sphere star map and introduces the Bayer star designations.

1607 Karl IX crowned king of Sweden.
Luis Vaez de Torres discovers Torres Strait by being forced by winds to go south of New Guinea on his way from Vanuatu to Manila.
Claudio Monteverdi writes the opera 'Orfeo'

1609 February, Sweden and Poland gets involved in a Russian civil war, Sweden on the side of tsar Vasilij Sjuiskij.
Rebels supported by Poland are trying to put Sigismunds son Vladislav Vasa as tsar.
As reward, Sweden will recieve the county of Kexholm permanently.

1610 March, Swedish forces enter Moscow, but are forced to give up thier support for the tsar in return for free passage home.
Vladislav Vasa new tsar of Russia.
Tea introduced in Europe by the Dutch.
The French invent the flintlock mechanism for firearms. Sweden declares war on Russia to lock out Russia from the Baltic Sea.

1611 Denmark declares war. Sweden is already at war with both Russia and Poland at this point.
Karl IX dies, Gustav II Adolf becomes king of Sweden.
Gothenburg destroyed by Denmark.

Gustav II Adolf

1613 Peace with Denmark. Sweden to pay 1 million daler silver in ransom for Älfsborg fortress (Gothenburg).

1615 Willem Schouten discovers Cape Horn.

1616 Death of William Shakespeare.

1617 Peace with Russia, Sweden gains Kexholm, remaining parts of Estonia and Livonia and 20000 roubles. Sweden recognises Michail Romanov as tsar and loses Novgorod. Russia is now locked out from the Baltic Sea.
Swedish nobility gains further privileges, such as exclusive right to high offices (this were to remain until 1809) and further reduced tax.

1618 30 years war breaks out.
Keplers three laws on planetary motion details shape of orbits, variations of orbital speed and orbit time dependant on distance to the sun.
October, Paridon van Horn and Christian Welshuisen signs a contract to build three ships in Västervik.

1619 Last payment to Denmark. Gothenburg founded (Again. -in a new place) built and populated mostly by foreigners.

1620 Antonius Monier leases the Skeppsholmen Shipyard in Stockholm.
He employs master shipwright Henrik Hybertsson.
Gustav II Adolf allocates generous anounts of money for the resuming of Uppsala University (founded 1477)

1621 Sweden captures Riga.
Mandatory for all craftsmen to be licensed by the appropriate guild.
Monier and Hybertsson are given a contract to build three ships, Maria, Gustavus and Mercurius at Skeppsholmen, Stockholm.

1622 Monier and Hybertsson are given a contract to build an additional ship, Tre Kronor.
In Västervik, Äpplet is launched as the largest ship of three, longer than the Vasa. Builders are Paridon van Horn and Christian Welshuisen.

1623 In England, dutchman Cornelius Drebbel demonstrates the worlds first working submarine,
taking it down the Thames at a depth of 15 feet.

1624 A contract draft for Henrik and Arent Hybertsson to build four ships; two of the same size as 'Gustavus' and two large ships, 136 feet long and 34 feet wide.
December, A new contract for the lease is written, specifying one large ship to be built and two smaller ships (the same size as Gustavus).

1625 February, Henrik and Arent Hybertsson signs a contract to repair Äpplet, which has proved to suffer from hull weakness problems.
10 ships are wrecked in a storm while on patrol in the bay of Riga.
A fire destroys part of Stockholm.
Van Horn and Welshuisen buys back Äpplet, they were to pay by building two ships Nya Svärdet and Västervik, plus supply tackling for Vasa.
October, Tre Kronor launched.
William Oughtred invents the slide rule.
November, Henrik Hybertsson falls ill.

1626 Tre Kronor delivered
Vasas keel is laid, possibly later lengthened.
Dutch traders purchase Manhattan from the local indians.

1627 Spring (March?), Henrik Hybertsson dies after a longer illness.
Margareta Nilsdotter, Henrik's widow, takes over his responsibilties at the shipyard.
Vasa delivered
Swedish flagship, 22 gun Tigern of 1624, is captured by the Polish, sister ship Solen (38 guns) blows itself up to avoid the same fate.

First sighting of South Australia by the Dutch.

1628 Äpplet delivered.
August 10, Vasa capsizes.

Note: topgallant masts not rigged.
Only four sails set.
August 13, English engineer Ian Bulmer signs a contract for raising the Vasa
August 21, Vasa righted with the help of 'Gamla Svärdet'
September 6, Riksnyckeln 1617, of 28 guns, runs aground and sinks on it's way home with wounded.
September, Arent Hybertsson resigns his citizenship and flees the country.

1629 January, VOC ship Batavia wrecked off west Australia.
January 9, The shipyard lease contract signed by the Hybertsson brothers is terminated. Admiral Claes Fleming takes over management.

1630 February, ceasefire with Poland (Peace wasn't signed until 1660)
June, Gustav II Adolf lands on Usedom, northern germany with a force of 13000.

Gustav II Adolf lands in Germany

1631 Klas Fleming signs a contract for Albrekt van Velden to build three ships in Gothenburg, the largest (Göta Ark) is to be the largest in the fleet: 168 feet long and 40 feet wide.
Battle of Breitenfelt, Gustav II Adolfs victories on the continent brings him to the head of the protestant forces carrying the title 'Protector Germaniae'.
Sweden is to receive 400000 daler a year for five years for maintaining an army of 36000 in Europe.

1632 September, Kronan launched, five feet longer than Äpplet.
November, at the age of 37, Gustav II Adolf is killed in the battle of Lützen (which he in spite of this misfortune, wins)
'Tigern' recaptured from the Polish.

1633 Galileo Galilei is brough before the Inquisistion in Rome where he, at the threat of torture and death at the stake was forced to "abjure, curse and detest" the view that the sun is the centre of the solar system.

1634 Göta Ark finished.

1636 Swedish postal service. Farms were to supply relay runners equipped with spear and signal horn.

1638 Ships Kalmare Nyckel and Fågel Grip arrives in north america (now Delaware), colony New Sweden established.
Richly decorated ship Sovereign of the Seas completed in England.

1639 In North America, Swede Jonas Jonson Brunk buys a piece of land from the local indians, it became known as Bronk's land, later Bronx.

1640 Stockholm outgrows it's old city plan, city walls demolished.

1645 First newspaper in Sweden, Ordinari Post Tijdender (later 'Post och Inrikes Tidningar')

1648 Peace of Westfalia. 30 yers war over.
The Dutch Republic independance from Spain officially recognised. (7 of the 17 provinces break free)
End of 80 years war (Dutch revolt)
1650 René Descartes dies of pneumonia in Stockholm where he had been invited as a teacher for Queen Christina.

L-┼. Kvarning, B. Orhelius - The Vasa
Professor Jan Glete - Gustav II Adolfs ─pplet
12 Nov 2003